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9 Şubat 2007 Cuma



Dr. Mehmet TUNÇER

I. Introduction

The changes, occured by the rapid development and change in our world and country, globalizm, localism and reconstruction process, made the “Ordinary Planning” approachs inadequate in solving the problems. Instead of not working approach in the application step, the planning approach which has alternatives, which is flexible and contemporary and which gives a possibility to creat a solution to the problems in a short and long term, takes part. In this case, definitions and planning approachs that can be called “Private Project Areas”, “Project Areas That Have Priority”, “Packet Project Areas” or “Action Planning Areas” in which the relations among lower and top scales can be established, the feedback among the scales again can be obtained, should be used effectual.

In the contents of this announcement, especially in the planning of historical city centres which have great relations with traditional urban tissues, the planning approach, called “Divide and Rule Model”, which is one way of using urban design effectual and the application of this approach in Ankara, Antalya and Konya Historical City Centres is explained with the examples. This model determines how basic decisions and strategies which will be taken in the top scales (1/25000 - 1/5000 - 1/1000) will be applied in the lower scales (1/500 - 1/200 ... 1/1). What will be done in the conservation planning of historical environment and private project areas is to obtain the coordination among the urban design projects.

Today, urban design is limited by certain, definite and sometimes detail decisions which are kept in mind by urban plans. In the result of these decisions or urban design which is not totalitarian and which is verified independently, put forward the problem which is not appraising the environmental effects of the designed area in the whole plan. To solve the urban and environmental problems, to obtain the working and applicable plans, in the urban place, in the top scale planning process, “Private Project Areas” (or Project Areas That Have Priority / Packet Project Areas) should be determined and then the vanguard, flexible decisions which have alternatives and steps and which will be the foundation of urban design scale, should be produced. Also transfering these decisions should be obtained in the application plans or urban design scales.
In our country today’ s dynamic and stabile (not having continuous features), static and hard planning approachs have not a quality that answers today’ s necessities or produces a solution to the problems.

II. The Problems in Historical City Centres in Our Country

Some places in our country’ s cities have architectural culture, tradition and collection which have been living for thousand years. Generally in our country’ s planning historical process, for a long time, historical city centres which take part within and mostly successively with the natural, historical and archeological places which should be conserved, were not seen as a place that should be firstly interferenced. With the development of historical environment consicience, the idea became diffused, which says that, historical urban tissues are unseperated part of the whole city, the decisions about the city are valid for all old and new city centres and planning that has a priority is a necessity.

In historical environments, especially in historical city centres planning and application problems gradually became more complicated.

These environments face to face problems as;
· The increase of the density of the Central Working Areas (CWA) usings,
· The increase of the population and area usings in a high rate,
· Therefore the increase of the rant and speculation,
· The revolution to subsidence areas,
· Problems of transportation and carparks,
· High floor renew after destruction,
· Not being conserved and being abondened.

Additionally, new transportation lines and applications of carparks which are contrary to the historical tissue and destroying the traditional tissue; the large sole area and heights; using decisions (worehouse, industry, small industry exc.) and the increase of the density that cause the destruction of the samples of monumental and / or civilian architecture which should be conserved in traditional tissue, are abondened and forgotten, also their existent values are supposed non-existent in urban plans. In historical city centres the another important application problem in plans which should be taken charge of again, is that the public work applications had been done and then they were registered with a title deed.

III. The Planning Approachs in Historical City Centres

The method which is being applied in traditional city tissues and historical city centres is “Conservation Planning of Historical Environment”. Becouse of its features in physical areas and socio - economic structure and different and various quality from the other parts of the city, the Conservation Planning is a team work in which different and many disciplines take part together. The specialists in this team change by again the quality of planning areas. But in general, an Urban Planner, specialized in conservation or an Architect, specialized in restoration, is accepted as a leader of the team.

In Conservation Planning, the planning works are made in 1/25000 (relations with the whole city), 1/5000 (Verse Implementation Plan That Aims Conservation), 1/1000 (Implementation Plan That Aims Conservation) scales. But historical environment planning should contain wide dimensions from the country scale to the building scale, moreover to the city furniture scale. Also Conservation Planning studies which are taken charge in country, region, environment, city, quarter of a town, street, open space and building scales, have relations with urban designs directly.

In historical city tissues, it is known that the plannings in scale 1/1000 is inadequate from the point of scales and details that are required by scales. In Conservation Plans, there are decisions about the relation between building and plot of land, the construction in empty plot of land, view point, vista, panoroma, conservation decisions, landscape and environment arrangements and moreover detail decisions about buildings’ architectural features (side / plan). Therefore 1/1000 plans, the scales of Implementation Plans, are plans in infertile and insufficient scales which wanted and necessary details are not shown.

In spite of the fact that the interferences that will be brought on historical city tissue are taken charge in the whole decisions, relating to the city, ordinary implementation plan methods are seen that they are insufficient, the application to urban design became influential. These places show a necessity to a place that will find an expression in different scales and also building designs, decisions that provides the structural and mekansal wholeness accordingly conservation, yaşatma, development principle. Additionally, according to the feature of subject and area, urban design projects should be done in 1/500 and larger scales (1/200, 1/100, 1/1).

The designs that can take the datas, gotton from the social and physical investigations which will be made in the whole historical environment, are occured by the result of the necessities, mentioned above. The urban design project which will be made in historical city centres, should be explained with a manner that will reduce the planning decisons of the city in top scales to the application decisions in lower scales.

Also in historical city centres, beside the totalitarian approach to the subject, after preparing a guide “Frame Plan” (Basic, master), project areas that have priority and action planning approach should be valid for the purpose of joining the application effectual and becouse of a big press on the CWA.

IV. Historical City Centres: Urban Design in Conservation and Develop

During the conservation, development, reform and renewal of the historical city centres, besides the methods and techiniques of the urban planning, the methods and techiniques which are required by “Conservation plans and projects” should be applied.

The conservation plannings of city centres should be a product that many specialization departments as; urban planning, architecture, restoration, art history, archaeology, landmark planning, transportation engineering, social science, etnology, urban economy, statistics, environment science, substructure engineering work together and according to the place their responsibilities should change. The profession department which will control and coordinate these disciplines and provide the coordination in their working is “Urban Planner, Specialist in Consevation”. All disciplines, previously mentioned, should take part in planning, project and application process in determined scales and determined times.

During the historical city centres’ conservation, development and harmonious to the traditional tissue renewal, “Urban Design” should be used effectual in all steps from top scales to lower scales.

· In Environment Arrangement Plans in 1/25000 Scale; The investigations about establishing the relations between historical city centres and whole metropoliten area or whole city, methods that take historical city centres in a whole which think of and not destroy the natural environment and ecologic balance, should be made. Then the designs with “Ecologic City Centre” approach should be improved by thinking of the climate, environment datas, natural datas. What can be done in this scale with urban design techiniques are limited. But the basic strategies that can effect the detail scales and give them a way, should be formed. Firstly all urban plans should be studied in urban design scales and then it should be concreted with implementation planning, legjant and techiniques. This is necessary for forming a healthy and applicable urban plan.

· In Implementation Plans in 1/5000 Scale; “Structural Plan” approach has more superiorities than ordinary implementation planning becouse it does not definite the future today and it is open and flexible to the new developments that can be occured in the future. In the structural plan approach, the priorities should be determined in top scales, the design frees should not be shortened by certain and detail decisions that is brought by totalitarian planning, it should be open to the probable changes in planning process and it should define these changes. In the Implementation Plan scales, the historical city centres’ basic decisions as its place in whole city and CWA, location, function and density, environment relations, tranportation connections should be given by investigating its shape in future. Centre develop politics, designs and models as developing the desentralization politics relating to establish the direction of the development of CWA, to reduce the press on traditional centre and to form new lower centres, should be established. The development of CWA aims, dependent on city population and sectorel development, should be formed with examining the inner dynamics of CWA.

In historical city centres the politics, aim at obtaining the conservation and develop, as;
1. The politics of pedestrian (to establish a circulation system that dependents on pedestrian; city open spaces; to form pedestrian ways and pedestrian zones; to plan cycle roads exc.)
2. The politics of mass transportation (light and heavy rail systems, mass transportation, private bus roads, tram systems exc.)
3. The politics of conservation, reform and renewal (restrotation, repairation, reform, improvement, renewal)
4. The politics for developing the units of turism and traditional trade / production / sale (to develop family pansions, traditional handicrafts exc.)
5. Financial (monetory), organizational, legal and administrative politics that will make the application effectual (credit mechanisms, financial and technique helps, exchange of goods, nationalization, the rant tranfer, local and central administration’s forming effectual units, completing the legal deficiencies, making Ministry of Culture Conservation Comittee effectual)
should be developed.

While Implementation Plan decisions are decided, “Urban Design” will take an effectual role in many steps during the development of conservation, mentioned above.

· In Master Plans (Aim at conservation) in 1/1000 Scale; The scales which urban design is used effectual are 1/1000 and bigger than 1/1000 scales (1/500, 1/200, 1/1). During the study of centre planning that aims conservation, a guide “Frame Plan” with a totalitarian and integrate conservation approach and the join and supplement of the disciplines, previously mentioned, should be prepared. Restoration specialists, art historians, archeologists, transportation planners, architects, substructure engeers and city planner, specialized in conservation, should play an effectual role in this process. In traditional centre, in the zones that have many monumental and civilian architect samples and archelogic remnants.

1. According to the decisions of Implemantation Plans, the pedestrian zones that will make the circulation of pedestrian easy and introduce the attraction of these zones, should be designed.
2. The unmovable cultural existences (residence, khan, drapery market, bath, mosque, külliye exc.) that need conservation and the usings (residence, traditional trade and handicrafts, turism, pansion exc.) that can make the conservation nearby these places easy, should be suggested and the spread of these usings should be determined by urban design.
3. The area of the sole (TAKS/KAKS/emsal) and heights (template/hmax) that are harmonious with the building, city block and plot of land, which will be conserved, and conservation area features nearby these places, should be planned. During the urban design, by giving these decisions choosing the construction form, technology and metarials by modern architect design of this time, that are harmonious with the traditional construction, side and plan types and that are resemble them but not imitate, should be given an attention.
4. Giving the using judge under the floor (underground shop, carpark exc.) that will provide the reduce of rant in some areas and transfer, that will not destroy the tissue with returning the residence to the trade, should be studied and reflected to the designs and plans.

Planning decisions should be given by urban design in 1/1000 and more than 1/1000 scales for all subjects, mentioned above.

V. The Effectual Using of Urban Design in The Conservatıon of Historical Environment, “Divide And Rule Model”

In conservation planning of historical environment and traditional city centres, the relations between plans, in 1/25000, 1/5000 and 1/1000 scales, and urban design were given above.

It is probable that to take charge of the lower parts, which have similar qualities in the application easinesses, in a totalitarian, can be called “Divide & Rule Model”.

The approach which says that “Urban design should be taken charge of in the whole urban plans and verified in a way of obtainig the wholeness between top and lower scales; forming packet projects and lower application zones whose basic principles will be determined in urban plans”, determines the basic philosphy of the model. During the determinetion of lower application zones, the decisions, given in urban plans, should not be the decisions that are limiting for the urban design and thet are not flexible. Also the environmental relations among these lower project areas should be established. Meanwhile, urban plan decisions in top scales, should be appraised again with the datas of plan - design applications in lower scales and changed if needed.

In this model, urban design is used effectual, according to continous and coherence of the plan, an effectual action plan is formed for urban politics. Conservation area and / or historical city centres are seperated in lower project areas that need a design in a priority becouse they are sensitive zones that need conservation and development in a priority.

These lower project areas can be seperated as:
· Aimed at transportation (openspace, pedestrian road, pedestiran zone, mass transportation exc.)
· Aimed at conservation (conservation areas that have priority, reform areas exc.)
· Aimed at renewal (forming new centre usings, reconstrucion after destruction, exc.)
· Aimed at arrangement of environment (arrangement areas that includes nearby places of monumental, civilian architectural samples)

To divide; brings easinesses becouse of its domination on lower parts that are harmonious with its quality and features, shows the different units (Municipality, wakfs, Ministry of Culture exc.) a way in the application. With determining these lower units, which will be taken charge of in urban design scales, with their limits in plans in 1/1000 scales (sometimes in 1/5000 scales), the principles and guide decisions, that will show urban design a way, are determined. According to their priorities (politic / urban priorities) these lower project areas are become detail projects for application by taking charge of in more top scales.

About this subject, the applications, done and still continue, in Ankara, Konya and Antalya Historical City Centres, will be examined in following part and conclusions that can be generalized for our country will be tried to form.

VI. Samples
VI.1. Urban Design Dimension in Conservation Planning of Ankara Ulus Historical City Centre

In the studies in Ankara Ulus Historical City Centre which were started in 1982 by Ankara Büyükşehir Municipality Implementation Depertmant Presidency, the area about 100 hac was planned by establishing packet project areas that had application priority .

In this project areas, urban design studies (1/1000 and 1/500 scales), aimed at conservation, were done, according to their features (*).

These studies were densed in private areas that had priorities, as;
· Hacıbayram Surroundings,
· Suluhan Surroundings,
· Çıkrıkçılar Yokuşu Surroundings,
· Anadolu Medeniyetleri Museum Surroundings,
· Karyağdı Türbesi Surroundings,
· Hasırcılar - Osmanlı Crossroad Connections and Old Turkish Bath Surroundings,
· Bend Stream Shared Taxi Stops Surroundings,
· Akköprü Surroundings.
However in the “Ulus Historical City Centre Environment Arrangement Competition”s list of conditions which is started in 1986, besides the planning studies in 1/500 and 1/1000 scales, the arrangement of some areas in 1/500 scales was wanted from the competitors.

These city parts, established as planning areas that had priorities, are;
· Open Spaces that will be arrangemented (Government Open Space, Atpazarı Open Space)
· Transportation Zones that will be arrangemented (Güvercin Street, Çerkeş Street, Atpazarı Yokuşu)
· Constructs and Constructs Groups that The Environment Arrangemet will be done (Hacıbayram Mosque, Antik Rome Theatre, Old Turkish Bath Surroundings)

Also details, arranged in 1/500 scale, relating to visual elements, as open space, pedestiran road and floor covers, suggested in single construct surroundings, urban furniture (rest group arrangement, bank, street lamps, waste bins, flower places exc.) were wanted to be shown with the arrangements which were priviously mentioned.

As seen, taking charge of the Historical City Centre’ s important and necessitating an urgent interferance parts, by pieced methods, was used effectiual in Ulus. In the winner project, 19 lower projects were determined with some terms as “Public Project Areas”, “Private Project Areas” (Ek 1).

VI.2. Urban Design Dimension in Conservation Planning of Konya Historical City Centre

In Konya Historical City Centre Planning Studies, aimed at Conservation (*), inside the traditional centre in the detail, the areas that were important and needed firstly design were determined as “Private Project Areas”.

These areas, needed design in 1/500 and more than 1/500 (1/200, ..., 1/1), are given below;
1. Aziziye Mosque Environment Arrangement
2. Kapu Mosque Environment Arrangement
3. Government Open Space Arrangement
4. Şerafeddin Mosque Underground Carpark and City Open Space Arrangement
5. Front of the PTT Underground Carpark And City Open Space Arrangement
6. İplikçi Mosque Environment Arrangement and Underground Carpark
7. Mahkeme Turkish Bath and Şerafeddin Mosque Environment Arrangement
8. Mevlana Külliyesi and Selimiye Mosque Open Space and Environment Arrangement
9. Karatay Külliyesi Environment Arrangement
10. Traditional Bazaar (Arasta) Part Conservation and Development Project

Konya Büyükşehir Municipality is preparing number 4,5,7 Private Project Areas’ (Şerafeddin Mosque Surroundings, Government Open Space, Historical Place Platosu, Front of the PTT Underground Carpark), urban design, landscape and urban furniture projects in a whole. In addition area’ s underground carpark project is being prepared. In this project urban design techiniques are being used (Ek 4).

VI. 3. Urban Design Dimension in Conservation Planning of Antalya Historical City Centre

The process of taking charge of Antalya Historical City Centre in a pieced started with “Kalekapısı Urban Design Project Competition” in 1990. In this project contents firstly “Making Şarampol Road as a Pedestrian Project” was prepared and applied. For “Balbey quarter of a town” which is within the historical city centre, a plan in 1/500 scale, aimed at conservation, was prepared. But becouse of some problems, relating to ownership, the plan could not be applied. Plan’ s revision studies are still continuing. Again for “Haşim İşçan quarter of a town” which takes place near the traditional city centre, the planning studies, aim at conservation, were completed. Inside Balbey and Haşim İşçan quarters of a town “Private Project Areas” that urban design studies were needed to prepare in 1/500 and more than 1/500 scales were determined (Ek 5).

VII. Conclusions

As seen in Ankara, Konya, Antalya Historical City Centre samples, the planning method, qualified as “Divide and Rule Model”, is a method of preparing detail planning, urban design, landscape and outside place elements plans and projects with seperating “Private Project Areas / Public Project Areas”.
It is seen that this method finds solutions to the complex problems of traditional city centres and obtains important easinesses for application. The 1/1000 scale plans which are the application scale for our contry, is inadequate for urban design plans and projects in areas that are become more complex by the modern life. In the historical city centres ( and in CWA) the effectual applicable scales are 1/500 - 1/200 ... 1/1 scales which are the subjects of urban design. In historical city centres, open space arrangements, pedestiran zone / street arrangements, memorial construct (mosque, han, Turkish Bath, bedesten exc.) surroundings arrangements and all surroundings arrangement , relating to conservation of construct groups, should be ruled, dependent on their priorities, by taking charge of them in a frame of a determined guiding plan whole (1/5000 and 1/1000) in urban design scales (1/500 and more than 1/500). The word “Rule”, previously mentioned, means “Rule of Project” concept.

Taking charge of each Project Packet in urban design scales, depends on excisting resources and application organised model. Monetary and organizational structure shows the design a way in forming the project. Giving the determined macro decisions (conservation, rehabilitation, renewal, transportation, using, construction exc.) and dividing Private Project areas also obtain easinesses to the steps ve control of the application in a period. It is seen that, taking charge of the urban design in determined private frame / frontiers and its giving joining and supplement possibility to the other relational disciplines (landscape, substructure engineering, architecture, industrial products design exc.) is the correct and short way that goes to the application.

Written by Ass. Prof. Dr. Mehmet TUNÇER
Transleted by Ebru AKPINAR

* TUNÇER, M., “Some Current Planning Studies and Applications in Ulus Historical City Centre”, Ulus Historical City Centre Environment Arrangement Competition, 1986, Ankara Büyükşehir Municipality Implementation Depertmant Presidency, P.71-75.
According to the qualities of each Lower Project Areas, the macro decisions and guides which could show a way to the detail projects, were given. In addition the concept of “Rant Coridors” was formed for verifying these project. The important, basic plannimg decision is the conservation and development of the Historical City Tissue by the income that will be obtained from the development of these areas. In these project areas, the projects as “Hacıbayram Environment Arrangement” (Ek 2), “Bend Stream Shared Taxi Stops Project”, “İstiklal (Jew) Quarter of a Town Project” were finished and applied.
* TUNÇER, M., “Konya Historical City Centre İmplemantation Plan, Aimed at Conservation, Report”, UTTA Planning & Consulting Ltd. Şti., 1997.
Antalya “Kaleiçi Planning Studies, Aimed at Conservation” were started by Middle East Techinical University in 1979. METU Parlar Wakf made a revision to the prepared conservation plan in 1992. “The Marina” that takes place in this planning area, was announced as a Turism Area and was opened for using by repairing with urban design, röleve and restoration projects which were prepared bu Turism Bank. This area is the most important urban part that has private project areas in its own.

[i] “9th URBAN DESIGN AND APPLICATIONS SYMPOSIUM”, “URBAN DESIGN IN DIFFERENT SCALES”, Ofered Announcement, Mimar Sinan University, Arc. Fac. City and Regional Planning Departmant, May 21 -22 1998.

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