Bu Blogda Ara

14 Şubat 2012 Salı



Prof. Dr. MehmetTUNÇER [1]
Ankara, Turkey,


TheAltar of Pergamon, Turkey (today called as Bergama), its kidnapping to Berlinat Ottoman time and the struggle for its return, the former Mayor of Bergama,Sefa Taskin  spending the night in frontof the Museum, is known to almost everyone who have a concern in the matter (Figure 1. The Zeus Altar).


Indeed,even today, a lot of valuable archaeological pieces are being used as collectedmaterial in buildings in Bergama.A small museum could be filled with the pieces that a keen eye would notice in Bergama streets. Thetraditional pattern and new developments are intermingled today in Bergama, and the antiqueperiod remains are all but vanished (Figure2) .

 Figure 2. Bergama (Pergamon) Antique CitySettlement Plan

Theurban and archaeological sites of Bergama, that is, the historical city thathas been mentioned with admiration, researched and put into writing, andpraised by scientists, archaeologists, architectures, art historians, cityplanners, sculptors and the like for more than two thousand years, faces thethreat of destruction today in places… (View1. The Panoramic Reconstruction of Bergama)

·     The extraction ofpart of the town center, which was initially in the historical site,  from the site and the preparation of a newimplementation plan, with a trend of denser building in that parts,
·     The illegalbuildings in the archaeological sites merged with the town, especially aroundthe Musalla Hill,
·     And the militaryland standing over archaeological remains,
havebrought the Selçuklu and Ottoman Period traditional urban patterns and the twomost important Roman Period theatres to the fringe of annihilation.
Oneof these theatres has been built in a form rarely encountered in Anatolia; like those theatres in Side and Aspendos, ithas been built on a completely artificial basis with no natural supports.Another feature of this theatre is that it has been built on vaults set upon astream and that, in times, the stream had been stopped and used for watersports and shows.
Theother theatre has been named Viran Kapı[2];olive trees have taken root in its caveat and it is struggling to protect itsform from the shantytown buildings. The land surrounding these theatres havecompletely come under the reign of illegal building, urban infrastructureservices like roads, water and electricity have been provided and the path toimplementation reform title-deeds being issued has been opened. (Figure 3. The Antique Theatre)


Thegravest danger to Bergamaarises from the implementation plan currently in force, which has been preparedfor the renovation of the town and which also contains the greater part of thetraditional pattern (Figure 4. The Bergama RevisedImplementation Plan (1/1000). In this plan, the Selçuk and Ottoman Periodhistorical urban pattern of Bergamabeing completely disregarded, new roads unfitting the pattern have beenproposed and some have been built, and large plots of land in conflict with thetraditional plot and building order, plus high (4-5 story) buildings have beenproposed as well. In accordance with the decisions of this plan, an importantstreet has been built in the town center, and tearing down old Bergaman houses,permits have been given for new buildings. Within the town, especially aroundthe traditional city center, buildings fitting this plan have started climbinghigh and the impressive Acropolis panorama from the İzmir road have beenpartially obscured. And when the city is viewed from the Acropolis, unfortunately,what is seen is that, the panorama and silhouette of the 2000-year-old town hasbeen disfigured by ugly concrete blocks and the city identity has begun to bepartially lost.


Figure 4. The BergamaRevised Implementation Plan (1/1000)

Sincethe urban historical site has been narrowed down to the boundaries of thehistorical city center, the implementation plan which is being applied in theareas outside this region will cause the Bergama historical town pattern andtown identity to be gradually lost. The “Protection Plan”, which is beingprepared in Bergamaby the Ministry of Culture but not in force yet could check only some part ofthis implementation plan, and the number of allowed stories have been lowered.However, the remaining parts should be reconsidered as well, in a way so as topreserve and improve the city pattern and keeping the silhouettes in mind.

Anotherdanger is for the Serapis Temple (KızılAvlu[3]),one of the greatest temples of Anatolia, considered to be one of the mostimportant symbols of the Pax Romana Period in Anatolia, which has been builtfor Egyptian gods and been converted to a Basilica in the Byzantian Period, andfor the vault  (tunnel) that the templeis built on. The Bergama Stream (Selinus) have been diverted to a tunnelapproximately 200 m. to the east with the use of the temple and the social andreligious buildings surrounding it; and a harmony has been created withdowntown (Figure 5 . Kızıl Avlu (Serapis Temple at The end of 19ThCentury). This part of Bergama has been standingfor centuries and is known as the “Ne Yerde, Ne Gökte[4]District”. However, the Kozak-Bergama-Soma Road going next to the Kızıl Avlu upon thisvault-tunnel and the load and the vibrations caused by the recently-increasedheavy-vehicle traffic is damaging this building, which has stood for 2000years, significantly. It can even be remarked that the vault-tunnel is indanger of caving in. It is required that this route be shifted further south,be cleared of heavy-vehicle traffic, and that a new bridge be built on theBergama Stream south-east of the town, arranging the Kızıl Avlu and itsproximity as a pedestrian-concentrated “Open-AirMuseum”  (Figure 6. Kızıl Avlu (Serapis Temple) Today).

  Figure 5 . KIZILAVLU (SERAPIS TEMPLE) (1840)

Whenthe city is toured, it can be observed that many pieces remaining from antiqueperiods are in use as collected material. Considering that the Roman period Bergama was a magnificentcity with a population of 250000, and that the Selçuk and Ottoman city has beenestablished entirely over this old town, it can be deduced that HellenisticPeriod and Roman Period urban remains are lying under the areas that have beendeveloped, at least up to the Republican Period. Keeping in mind thatexcavations by eliminating urban buildings are impossible, the importance ofthe foundation excavations of each new building for archaeology and art historyis revealed. Actually, in the recent years, the RomanTheatre and Odeon on Hisar Street in Ankara has been exposed insuch a building foundation excavation, and since it was in the “Museum-Controlled Region”, it has beenpublicized and the necessary precautions taken instantly and it was thus savedfrom destruction. Had there been no controlled excavation, as in many otherlocations, a 6-story building would now be rising on this theatre as well!


Otherthan the Bergama Archaeological Sites, the excavations for the new buildings inthe city should also be controlled, and evaluating every bit of data that cancome out of that, the Hellenistic and Roman Period plan of the city should becreated. The first of such investigations has been conducted by Carl Humann in1879 Excavations in the areas determined from the better maps, with 1/2500scale and dated 1926 that show the area in which the Ottoman City pattern wasspread, should be museum controlled. Even the construction and exhibition ofthe reconstruction model of the city and would reveal the magnificence of thecity in the antique ages better (Figure7. Pergamon Acropolis Reconstruction Drawing).




Onthe matter of “Preservation of theHistorical Environment”, the Central Administration and the LocalAdministrations should, together and in co-operation, develop deep-rootedadministrative, legal, economical and financial solution paths. The CentralAdministration and Local Administrations have been given certain duties andauthorities with the Preservation of Cultural and Natural Assets Law (numbered2863and 3386), the Implementation Law (3194), and the Municipalities Law (1580)on the matter of the preservation of the historical environment.
However,it is not possible to say that in particular the local administrations areutilising these points of authority completely and correctly. The problems ofhistorical environment occur in ways specific to each region. Thus, above all,the local administration is responsible for all kinds of local service. Thelocal administrations are defined as public establishments “that meet the common and local needs of the people”. The twobasic measures in the definition are that there are “common needs” of the people and that these needs are “local”.
Theproblems of the historical environment are also of the “local and common”problems. Hence, it can be said that the problem of preserving the historicalenvironment is firstly the problem of the local administration. Themunicipalities are primarily responsible for regulating urban life. Themunicipality legislations have provided the municipalities with significantpossibilities with the goal of regulating the urban life environment. Amongthese possibilities are the preparation of administrative regulating texts,applying the municipality penalty system and procedures like permissions andpermits.
Certainarticles in the 1930 dated and 1580 numbered Municipality Law has given themunicipalities important authority and duties on preservation, environmentarrangements and reforms. Although this law has lost its applicability intoday’s conditions, it nonetheless is in force until a new local administrationreform is realised.
Thearticles  numbered 15/35, 19, 115 and 159impose upon the municipalities important duties about the preservation of thehistorical environment.

II.2. ControllerRegulations:

The articleno. 19 gives the municipalities the authorities of making all kinds of advancesfor easing urban life, make prohibitions and impose penalties upon those thatdo not follow the prohibitions. Based upon this authority, the Municipalitiesmay bring rules about the functioning of controllers, which are the legal forceof municipalities, with the “Controller Regulations” they prepare. However,today the controller regulations are little more than lists of prohibitions.
Thecontroller regulations should determine the urban standard, principles, andrequisites of living. A “HistoricalEnvironment Controller” force, equipped with the authority of checking andcontrolling issues like buildings in historical environments, repairs withoutpermission, checking that the repairs are in accordance with the permit, andchecking that the building application type fits the plan and the quality ofthe environment, should be formed; and should work locally in synchronisationwith the Municipality Implementation Departments. These controllers could alsobe given a general “ENVIRONMENTALCONTROLLER” quality by linking them also to basic environmental problemssuch as air, water and soil pollution, noise, solid wastes, visual pollution(notices, signs and plaques), the problems of transport and parking, generalhygiene of cities and green areas, that concern the urban environment closely.

II.3.Health Controller Regulations:

The GeneralHıfzısıhha (General Public Health) Law, numbered 1593, has given theMunicipalities the right and duty to put out a “Health Controller Regulations”, subject to the condition that itbe approved by the Ministries of Internal Affairs and Health. The Regulationaims for applying the decisions of the General Hıfzısıhha Law within themunicipality boundaries using the municipality controllers. This regulations,which is for the urban environment and thus the historical environment which isan important part of it to be more healthy, should be prepared considering thestandard principles and rules of the requirements of environmental health.

II.4.Implementation Regulations:

Rapid,unplanned urbanisation and land speculation lie at the roots of the problems ofthe historical environment. The urbanisation phenomenon has been regulated bythe Implementation Laws and the imposed rules are being applied by theImplementation Regulations in Municipalities. Significant steps could be takentowards preservation with the addition of articles about the preservation,reform and improvement of the historical environment.

II.5.Permit Authorities:

One of themost important rights of Municipalities is that of “permitting” businesses that could create undesirable conditions asregards health during production. The permits, which are documents ofpermission for work, also include the work conditions. Only the businesses thatsatisfy these conditions are allowed to be initiated and operated. If theconditions are unsatisfied, the permit is revoked. It is basic that businesseswith the quality of preserving and not harming the historical pattern should beplaced within the historical environment. Checking of this and the control whetherit fits the plan or not could be made during the permit stage of thebusinesses.
According tothe General Hıfzısıhha Law, the I. and II.Grade Unhealthy Establishments, which are the Unhealthy Establishments thatharm the historical environment, should be prevented from taking place withinhistorical patterns. The permits of the existing ones should be revoked andthey should be made to move to outside the pattern. And within thepreservation-aimed plans, historical businesses which are harmonious with thetraditional pattern and of traditional quality (carpet-making, kilim-making, handcraftsetc.) should be placed along with pension, hotel and residence applications.
With theregulation, whose old name is “Küşat Regulation” and new name is“Business-Initiating Regulation”, the municipalities have the right todetermine the necessary conditions for the initiation and operation of sites of  production. Through this regulation, quite alarge number of production establishments with a negative effect on natural andhistorical environment could be put into tight control.

Rules on“Building Permit”s and “Residing and Using Permits” should be rearranged in away as to provide maintenance and repair for the historical environment. Newbuildings and repairs on old ones should be brought into accordance with thebuilding and repair conditions explained in the Preservation-Aimed Plans andthis should be controlled.
The legalrights mentioned above are still in use in our Municipalities. These rightscould be utilised in an effective way for the preservation of the natural andhistorical environment and thus a better urban environment could be created.
However,municipalities do not have personnel aware of and educated on the matter of thepreservation of the historical environment. The Ankara Greater Municipality haspersonnel of much higher quality and expertise in this matter as compared tothe Şanlıurfa and Bergama Municipalities. The insufficiency of personnel bringsabout an important limitation on the issues of preservation planning,application and control in the historical environment.
Hence, theorganisation structure of the municipality should be arranged with a futuristicoutlook, a “Historical Environment Preservation Department” should beestablished directly answerable to the mayor and the implementation manager,and these units should be equipped by related, expertise professionals. Thearchaeologist, the art historian, the restoration-expert architect and the cityplanner should be the basic positions in these units. Along with the creationof the units, which will take time and be difficult, the municipalities usingthe paths available to them consciously will result in success in the attemptsof preservation and improvement in historical environments. A responsibilitysuch as leading and providing education for the attempts of the preservation ofthe historical environment falls to the Ministry of Culture, the Ministry ofInternal Affairs, the Ministry of Environment and the Ministry of Buildings andSettlement.



Time, damagedone by the mankind in the Bergama Archaeological and Urban Sites and erosionpresent a complex bouquet of problems. Along with the erosion of natural forcessuch as temperature change, earthquakes, wind and water etc., the centuries ofplundering and damage by the mankind have caused unreplacable losses in theregion. Through internationally accepted methods of excavation, restoration andpreservation (The Venetian Regulations et al.), the abrasion of nature onarchaeological sites and monumental buildings could be delayed.
Awell-planned and well-executed advertisement and tour program would support theawareness today on this cultural heritage, which should be preserved for thenext generation.
Special careshould be given so that preservation is realised, the works are kept intact andexhibited in the best way possible. The most important of these processes isthe prevention of shantytown occupation and illegal buildings within and aroundarchaeological sites. Blocking multi-storey buildings and controlling thesilhouette are of first importance. In places where the pattern is beingdisfigured, precautions should be taken with priority through“Preservation-Aimed” planning and project works.
Supportingthe pieces still in the open air and the preservation of pieces on the groundare significant within the Archaeological Site. The archaeological remainsshould be protected, covered with light covers, be removed from the region withthe aim of temporary storage or exhibition, or, where applicable, the workshould be restored according to its original form, following the restorationprinciples. By gathering together the architectural structure elements whichhave broken off and scattered away from the original building for variousreasons and by anastilosis applications, a sight of intactness would be givento the Antique Town.
For the“ARCHAEOPARK”, which is included in the Bergama Urban and Archaeological SitesPreservation-Aimed Implementation Plan, an “Archaeological Master Plan”,similar to the one having prepared by the Greater Municipality of Ankara,should be prepared and the reports of excavations, sondages and researches ofvarious periods should be brought together scientifically.
By preparingthe “Reconstruction Plan” of the town, the town pattern of the Hellenistic andRoman periods should be determined for certain, and, following that, detailedplanning and project work should be undertaken according to the principles ofarchaeology, restoration, planning, landscape and urban furniture (Figure 8. Carl Human’s Plan of Pergamon)


III.2.1.Macro Policies:

The Municipality of Bergama should determine the land andland plot stocks in public possession (treasury, foundations etc.) within themunicipality bounds and these lands should be used towards the “Preservation-AimedImplementation Plan” without being transferred to private possession.
For the endgoal of a healthy control over the town’s development, the municipality shouldobtain plots of land within developing residential areas and, creating theinfrastructure of these areas, should produce as many residences as it could;by assigning plots of land to those people which are resident in the areasmarked for evacuation within archaeological or urban sites and by aiding thosewho construct their own homes, and by providing building materials, shouldsupport their owning homes.



Themunicipality should realise the application of the Article 18 (dough) of theImplementation Law, which is an important legal tool for the goal of theapplication of the Bergama Preservation-Aimed Plan” and therealisation of applications and preservation which are for the good of thepublic. This way, public-intended applications (roads, squares, parks, carparks, kindergartens, green areas etc.) will be in public possession withoutpayment and the Municipality of Bergama would have aland stock which is important in applications.

III.2.2. PoliciesTowards the Preservation and Improvement of the Urban Site:

Themaking and application of preservation decisions constitute aninter-organisational decision process. Although the P.C.H.V.[5]Supreme  Council  and the İzmir Preservation Council aredecision-making establishments, the rights of application, control andfinancial resource allocation have been assigned to other publicestablishments, and especially to local administrations.

a. Suggestions onOrganisation:

TheMunicipality of Bergama should form a “Department of Preservation of theHistorical Environment”, answerable directly to the mayor, with the goal ofharmonising the future restorations and repairs and new buildings fitting theplan with the urban site and its environment according to the “ApplicationRegulations,” “Plan Notes,” and the P.C.H.V. Council decisions. Among theduties of this department should be directing and staging the infrastructureand environment-arranging work that would be held by the municipality withinthe urban pattern and controlling the applications related to single buildingsby checking how well they fit in with the plan.
Preservationapplications should be supported by providing plans, projects and financial aidto those who want to repair their homes. The public should be exposed to theplans and projects on Bergamathrough exhibitions, and the public interest, involvement and awareness shouldbe set by publishing booklets.
TheMunicipality of Bergama should work towards the goal ofattracting the financial and technical support of the private sector and theMinistry of Culture, the Ministry of Tourism, the Department of Foundations andother related establishments for the preservation of monumental and civilianarchitecture examples. By introducing the Bergama Preservation Plan”and related projects to be developed in the international platforms, theMunicipality should obtain resources from culturally-oriented loans, funds andaids.

b. Suggestions onthe Application Process:

Inour country, preservation implementation plans, like other implementationplans, are being left alone to take their own natural course after aquite-long-lasting approval process. However, urban parts that should be preservedare inevitably ending up facing demolishment and destruction as the result ofthe plan not being actively applied. Some years later, new works ofdetermination and documentation are held, and related to those, since the planis now outdated, the pressure causes a new plan to be made and the traditionalpatterns are being lost in time. Moreover, applications like excluding partsfrom the registration lists, and change in site boundaries as in Bergama are negativeeffects upon this process. The application of preservation-aimed implementationplans should not be spread out too much in time, unlike other area plans.Planning and application processes like active planning, action planning,priority-area planning and the divide-and-direct model should be the norm.
Wehave to preserve and develop material and spiritual cultural Assets and theirnatural environment, and pass them to future generations as whole and intact aspossible. However, being aware of the difficulties in application would bebeneficial in creating realistic solutions. During the work of the preservationand development of the urban environment, the town of Bergama, which is archaeologically,historically, architecturally, visually and ethnographically valuable, shouldbe preserved not as a dead museum, but as living environments which adds to thetouristical, cultural, social and economical development of the region they arein and which can support sustainable development. Hence, the existinganalytical works should be updated through a healthy inventorial work and areasin which the traditional architectural features are the majority, are beingdistorted and are lost should be determined (Plan 6. Qualities of the Building Stock).
Afterthe initial financial support is provided for the actions to be initiated andcarried out in the areas to be preserved and improved, the functions assignedto these areas should be connected to the mechanism for the continuation ofthis financial support. Otherwise, consequences like the Municipality of Bergamaand Ministry of Culture paying irrevocable amounts even though for culture,being limited or not being able to pay at all might be imminent. Thus, theapplication of the aforementioned articles of the Law of Municipalities and therealisation of related legal health and control forces would add a legal poweredge to the attempts of preserving the historical environment  in Bergama.
Onthe matter of the loans to be made to building owners, the “Regulations on the Repairs Contribution Fund of the Immobile CulturalAssets in the Possession of Real and Legal Persons Under the Jurisdiction ofSpecial Law” (The Official Gazette dated 25.06.1985 and numbered 18791)determines the methods and basis for the loans to be issued and material (inkind), money (in cash) and technical support to be given by the Ministry ofCulture for buildings registered for preservation.
Article5 of Law Numbered 3386 says, “Registeredbuildings reserved for cultural applications in the preservation-aimedimplementation plan could be publicised by the Municipality subject to theapproval of the Ministry, provided that the buildings is repaired and used.”and provides the Municipalities with the possibility of publicising andrepairing the culturally-oriented buildings in the urban sites. Moreover, inpart (f) of the same article, it is said that “Parcel plots of land containing immobile cultural variables that hasto be preserved, under strict building prohibition since it is in a urban site,could be exchanged with another piece of treasury land on request of the ownerand if the land contains a building or an establishment, payment shall be madeon request of the owner by determining the cost according to Article 11 of theLaw Numbered 2942.”. According to this point, there arises the possibilityof a mutual agreement between property owners and the municipality. Thepossession of some special buildings within the urban site could be obtained bythe Municipality of Bergama with suchexchanges.

TheMunicipality of Bergama could construct organisationslike
·     Arotating-capital operation,
·     Establishingunions, participating in unions and partnerships, giving privileges,
·     Directingthrough an operation within or without the Municipality.

Ofthese organisations, especially the “Rotator-capital” and the “Operation”organisations could be beneficial for urban preservation andimprovement/renovation. Such organisations could be established immediatelywith the existing laws and could add an economical dimension to the activity ofpreserving the historical environment.
Bydetermining the special project design areas that are within the whole of theBergama Preservation Plan and are named “UrbanDesign Area (Priority Project Area)” and determining the priorities according to the repair and environment-arrangementprojects that would be prepared, applications could commence.
Inthese regions, first the infrastructure could be reformed and completed;suprastructure arrangements could come later. Although there is a decision madeabout continuing residential applications within the Special Project areas, theworks of preservation, reform and renovation in these regions could be carriedout by the rotating-capital management (or the co-operative). By operating theresidences as applications like pensions, student dormitories, officialresidences etc., it is possible to recycle the investment. The duty region ofthis operation, whose sort of operation is an “Operation of the Municipality”,is the preservation/improvement region; and the most important tool determiningthe boundaries around this duty is the “Preservation Plan”.
TheMunicipality of Bergama should do its duty actively inthe matters summarised below for the application of a sustainable preservationand improvement of the historical environment, by obtaining national andinternational support together with the Ministry of Culture:

1.     Resources should bereallocated from related central-administrative (public) establishments andorganisations (The Ministry of Culture, the Ministry of Tourism, the Ministryof Building and Implementation, the Ministry of Finance and Customs, theDepartment of Foundations, the Ministry of Environment etc.) to theMunicipality of Bergama in the urban preservation and improvement applicationsthat require a continuous, pre-planned, pre-programmed work based uponprojects.
2.     The ImplementationPrograms of the Municipality of Bergama whichemphasize the matters of preservation, making healthier and improvement shouldbe supported by the related Ministries and resources should be reallocated forthe application.
3.     The Municipality of Bergama, reconsidering its internalstructure,  should form a effective unitwhose rights and responsibilities are determined, constituting of the relatedbranches of expertise (archaeology, restoration, urban preservation, urbanplanning, architecture, peysage etc.). This unit should participate actively inthe attempts of planning, project-preparation, preservation/makinghealthier/improvement and environmental arrangements.
4.     A part of the publicsocial equipment areas should be obtained by applying the Article 18 of theImplementation Law.
5.     Building owners whorepair their building or arrange its surroundings according to the planconditions should be supported and be aided financially and with projects. Incase that the property-holder does not realise this application in apre-determined period of time, the Municipality should undertake the task.

Themost important resource in realising all those suggested above is the aid andparticipation of those who dwell in Bergama.The public should be convinced that the preservation of the historicalenvironment is good for Bergamaand the attempts of installing an awareness and concern for the historicalenvironment should be initiated in the elementary-school years.

c. Suggestions on the Social Structure:

Whenthe results from the “Bergama SocialStructure Research”  by the MiddleEast Technical University (1979) and the “SocialSurvey” by Akman Project (1991) are evaluated together, it is possible tostate that in spite of some external physical effects on and renovations inBergama, the social structure has quite static and similar properties, that thesocial and physical structure gets even more deformed with influences such asthe disturbance of the balance between the income groups and the gradualreduction of the power of purchase.
Itis important to know the social structure of the people of the region, who willbe the greatest support in the preservation and improvement of the historicalenvironment in Bergama.Bergama is asettlement where the social mobility is not outside normal boundaries. Althoughit has outward-immigration, since it also has inward-immigration thedemographical structure displays a dynamic case. This phenomenon, which we callillegal building and wide-spread shantytowns, is on one hand forcing theboundaries of the historical urban pattern and the archaeological sitestighter, and is on the other hand disrupting the trends of urban developmentwhich are growing as a whole with the aforementioned places.
Themost important point in preserving the historical urban pattern is being ableto eliminate the harmful effects of in-town mobility. Families whose income hasrisen, or families which are in the high-income group that want to live in moremodern and comfortable residences or in the new prestige districts are movingout of the historical urban pattern. The maintenance level of the oldresidences hired-out is getting lower and, from a point of view, the historicalurban pattern is being left to be deformed and demolished.
Thelandlord-tenant relation also affects the maintenance and repair level of thebuildings. Certain changes in application are required for a repair that wouldbe financially beneficial.
Theold Bergaman settlement is a social environment that should be improved byconsidering it together with the archaeological site, the urban town center andthe new Bergama.The districts within the traditional pattern display physical and socialfeatures quite close to those of each other. However, as one shifts to thesouth, it can be observed that the physical and social structure change. Thecenter in the traditional town center which serves the traditional or semi-traditional, rural-origin or low-incomegroups and the new trade center with tourism purposes which is around the KızılAvlu and reaching out towards the south are influencing this social structure.This social structure, seeming temporary and continuously-changing, holding thetrade and marginal professionals, is economically less powerful, is of a mediumlevel of education, and displays less concern/awareness for the historicalpattern and the archaeological areas.
Theoverall concern for Bergamahas been increased significantly by the long-lasting factor of tourism, byvarious infrastructure investments (PTT, road repairs, kindergartens,arrangements of squares and intersections), and by the rise in introductorypublications and tourism investments.
Beloware the suggestions on the social structure developed for easing preservationin Bergama:

·     The success of plansand projects of preservation is assured only with the acceptance of the publicand the local people and their applications towards the goal.
·     Protecting therights of the landlords and tenants, or in general, the residents in thetraditional pattern of Bergamashould be a primary goal in the attempts of preservation.
·     Decreasing thepopulation density within the traditional pattern would be realised graduallyby the conversion of some buildings used for residential purposes toapplications put forward in the Preservation Plan. It is natural that a fastintervention would be done with the hand of the public to some buildings thatrequire urgent repairs and should be protected with priority. The rights of theproperty-holders and dwellers in that building should be protected as thebuilding is being won over.
·     Methods likeexchange, determining a place and paying the true cost should be applied inpublicisations or tenant-evacuations. Considering that the people probably havejobs in the immediate vicinity, the new buildings that are to be constructedshould be in the historical town center and its proximity as possible. Theapplication should be carried out with an approach so as to minimise the travelcosts of the people and prevent them from being estranged from their socialenvironment.
·     Attempts should bemade to recreate the social structure in such a way as to lead the traditionalproduction and selling activities and to recreate existing hand crafts (copper-working,leather-working, weaving etc.) and developing them; applications that wouldopen the way for modern artists to take place in this pattern as well as thetraditional Turkish hand crafts should be made.
·     It is consideredthat the support personnel for hosting activities (hotels, motels, pensionsetc.) and tradespeople settling in the old Bergama houses would help bringingtogether the activities of preservation and improvement and economicalactivities.

Thecontemporary problems of preservation of many monumental and environmentalbuilding in the urban sites of Bergamaand the long-lasting preparation procedure of the preservation-aimedimplementation plan are not mentioned in this article; rather, the general andfirst-priority problems are emphasized. We bear the hope that the central andlocal authorities, who were very particular about the Altar of Bergama, wouldconsider the problems mentioned above urgently.


·     TUNCER,M., 1991, “BergamaConservation Plan”, the Plan Report, AKMAN Project Ltd.
·     ERIS,E., 1991, “History of Civilization in Bergama”,the Cultural Publications of the Municipality of Bergama, No. 2.
·     KARAGOZOĞLU,H.F., SONMEZ, I., KARAGOZOGLU, T., 1989, “Lawof Mobile-Immobile Ancient Works.”
·     TOL,S., USLU, A., ODTU, Dept. of Restoration, Faculty of Architecture, 1979, “TheEvaluation of an Example Area from the BergamaHistorical Residential Pattern: The Yamaçevler Settlement, Dede-Kadı Street.”
·     TUNCER,M., 1995, “The Policy of Preserving the Historical Environment for SustainableDevelopment: Examples of Ankara, Bergama and Şanlıurfa.”Unpublished Doctorate Dissertation, A.Ü., F.P.S.
·     TUNCER,M., 1993, “The Social Structure of the BergamaHistorical Urban Pattern and Suggestions on Preservation,” KonutbirlikMagazine, p. 107.

[1]  Prof. in Restoration, Fac. Of  Architecture and Engineering, Dep. Architecture, Abant Izzet Baysal  University, Golkoy Campus, Bolu, TURKEY.
[2] “Viran Kapı”=”Ruined Door.”
[3] “Kızıl Avlu”=”Red Yard”
[4] “Ne Yerde, Ne Gökte”= Literally translated “Neither on the Earth,Nor in the Sky”, idiom signifying the buildings in the area sitting on vaultsthrough which a stream is flowing…
[5] P.C.H.V.: Protection of Cultural and Historical Assets; = K.T.V.K.:Kültürel ve Tarihsel Varlıkları Koruma.

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