26 Temmuz 2009 Pazar
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF THE REPORT ON DEVELOPMENT PATTERN OF ANTALYA URBAN REGION
(Prepared for Greater Antalya Municipality in 1997)
Prof. Dr. Mehmet Tunçer
AİBÜ Mühendislik Mimarlık Fakültesi – Mimarlık Bölümü Başkanı
A. OBJECTIVE, CONTEXT, METHODOLOGY
The main objective of Antalya physical planning is to facilitate development of the settlement in conformity with the geographic, economic and spatial advantages it possesses, nevertheless to attain this sustainable development striking a balance with the vulnareble environmental values.
1. The peculiarities of Antalya pertaining to its ever growing national and international relations and activities should be taken into consideration all through the planning process. It is necessary to perceive the city as a metropolis of future, therefore planning studies should be carried out in a manner which is beyond the traditional city planning approach. Within this framework, the first priority has been given to arranging and making decisions at “Regional” and “Sub-regional” levels.
2. A multi-sectoral approach is also indispensable for the planning of Antalya. While the problems of rapid growth have ever been growing, the means to solve these problems require search for multi-dimensional approaches. Thus within the planning process, various urban uses, as well as, sectors and issues concerning the city and city life will be considered with a holistic approach.
3. Within the process of urban planning, policies and strategies pertaining to the major uses should be produced for sub-sectors and/or sub-uses.
Natural, historical and archaeological values specific to the city of Antalya are certainly significant inputs for planning.
The future varieties and densities of use of these assets will be taken into consideration within the integrity of planning and “sustainable development” will be aimed at through the provision of meaningful integration of uses.
4. The connections of other settlements nearby Antalya and particularly those within its immediate surrounding ( Aksu, Yeşilbayır, Varsak, Çalkaya and Döşemealtı) with the main road will specifically be planned with utmost care. Considering the fact that the city is in a “metropolitanisation” process, some proposals concerning any decision and measure will be developed.in order to prevent this tendency.
5. Antalya planning will be prepared through formulating development policies and strategies for major sectors and converting these to decisions relating to physical area considering realisation period and financial possibilities within a rational integrity.
6. The administrative and organisational arrangements required for transferring the planning into daily life will be evaluated as an integrated element of planning.
Within the context of Antalya Urban Region Development Pattern studies, qualitative and quantitative approaches will be considered together within a theoretical consistency. The development pattern of Urban Region and Greater Antalya will be determined through producing scenarios facilitating normative approaches and various alternatives.
It has been found out that perceiving Antalya, from spatial point of view, together with its immediate surrounding being influenced by and influencing it, and thus formulating plan decisions for this whole, is indispensable. Within this context first the Province of Antalya has been analysed in terms of economic, demographic and spatial points of view; and population and employment projections have been made for the year 2015. Considering economic dependency, spatial integration and volume of flow, the studies resulted that the axis of Kemer-Antalya-Serik-(Belek)-Manavgat(Side) will complete their integration by the target year and thus this area has been named as Antalya Urban Region.
On the other hand, detailed analysis resulted that Varsak, Aksu, Çalkaya, Yeşilbayır and Yeniköy(Döşemealtı) districts which are adjacent to the boundaries of Greater Municipality of Antalya and are integrated with Antalya even today, will be perceived as a whole and will functionally be complementary to each other within the plan period.
In further stages of the studies, these two spatial formations have continuously been taken into consideration.
B. THE CITY OF ANTALYA
Antalya as a rapidly growing city in recent years, with a potential to fulfil international functions, is one of the most important large cities of our country. It has been getting a significant share from the rapid urbanisation being experienced.
In the period of 1985-1990, Antalya Provincial Center, with an urban population growth rate of 44.84 %, has experienced quite a high population increase when compared to the national average. Annual average population growth rate, with 7.69 % has proceeded at a level almost two times of national urban average.
A qualitative and important characteristic of the city is the increasing variety and size of modern urban functions it fulfils. The city itself has been making use of this potential for developing its economy.
During the last decade, considerable developments have been observed. In various economic sectors Agriculture has traditionally been major economic sector, maintaining always its importance for the Province of Antalya.
The city of Antalya is the most important marketing and distribution center for the agricultural products supplied to national and international markets.
Significant developments have also been observed in the secondary sector. Although these developments have never been as rapid as that of the tertiary sector, there still is a diversification to a certain extent.
Service sector constitutes the major economies in Antalya. Particularly in the tourism sector organized developments have been attracting attention.
The sectoral development summarized above, brought Antalya into a position of a settlement developing rapidly and experiencing a process of “metropolitanisation.”
This rapid development observed in various sectors is an advantage. Nevertheless visual and environmental values and vulnerability the city possesses should be evaluated together with this development with utmost care.
C. EMPLOYMENT AND POPULATION PROJECTIONS
At the second stage of studies, employment and population projections have been made for the city of Antalya and its immediate surrounding to be developed in accordance with the main objectives mentioned above.
The employment and population projections have been made through testing various methods. The projections were obtained depending on the “Economic Base” theory. Within the context of this theory, first the major sectors affecting the urban population were defined and employment volume to be created by these sectors in the year 2015 was estimated.. Later on population for the target year was estimated with the assumption that population is a determinant of employment in major sectors. Within this framework definitions of major sectors have been made through the use of sectoral concentration coefficient. It has been found out that within the period of 1970-1990 agriculture, commerce- tourism, construction and in certain periods production industry have been major sectors and employed more manpower when compared with national averages.
The potential growth rates of major sectors, in the period of 1995-2015 have been estimated through different methodologies. The chosen alternatives have been obtained by this way.
Within the set of first alternative, it was assumed that the major sectors will continue to grow with the same rate experienced in the city of Antalya during the period of 1970-1990. Major sectors have been diversified, and differentiated growth rates were applied. According to these various options, the projected population of Antalya for the year 2015 varies between 2 400 000 and 4 260 000.
Whereas in the set of second alternative, the assumption is that some of the major sectors will grow harmoniously with the sectoral growth rate at the national level in the period of 1995-2015. For some of the sectors, the rates of growth foreseen by the related central government authorities were applied in the projection model. 2015 population was estimated between 1 670 000 and 2 050 000 according to this set of alternative.
The assessments showed that projected population is higher, with approximately
2 500 000, when it is based on sectoral employment growth rates experienced in Antalya; while it is lower when national rates were used. In the final projections of employment and population; the alternative yielding 1 670 000 population has been preferred considering the facts that the exceptional population increase Antalya experienced in the period of 1970-1990 can not continue at the same rate in the next two decades, and the city will grow at a rate close to the national average, although above it; as well as taking the environmental vulnerability of the city and its immediate surrounding, into consideration.
In the following stages of studies, this alternative has been further developed. Taking into account that the surrounding settlements like Varsak, Aksu, Çalkaya, Yeşilbayır and Döşemealtı are adjacent to the borders of Antalya with which they are in close interaction, the population projections of these settlements were also made. It was assumed that in future, during the plan period, Antalya would be integrated with these settlements in terms of legal and administrative status as well. In this case, 2015 population of Antalya and its immediate surrounding is estimated approximately 1 750 000
On the other hand, as explained above, the projected population of Antalya Urban Region for 2015, have been worked out in detail and the relative position of Antalya within this axis has been analysed.
D. PLAN DECISIONS
Antalya Urban Region and Greater City will face a significant development pressure during the period of 1995-2015 comprising the plan period. Economic and demographic concentrations may have adverse effects in terms of economic and ecologic points of view, unless necessary measures are taken.
1. OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGIES OF PLANNING
1 With the above mentioned reasons, detailed and specific strategies have been formulated both at a general level and at the level of urban sectors, in order to channelize these concentrations and physical development has been planned accordingly.
1.1. DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES AT GENERAL AND GLOBAL LEVELS (GS)
GS 1. Antalya Urban Region and the Greater City should be an important center establishing the international relations of Turkey within the plan period. (GS1 DECISION MAKING CITY)
GS 2 Greater City of Antalya should, as in the case of metropolitan cities with national and international importance, include developed and diversified sectors. (GS 2 GLOBAL CITY)
GS 3 Greater City of Antalya should have completed the “metropolitanisation” process on the basis of various sectors and criteria. By the plan period. (GS 3 METROPOLITANISATION)
(GS 4 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT)
GS 5 Both in Antalya Greater City and other settlements of the Urban Region, economic activities should be differentiated and certain functional hierarchies should come out.
(GS 5 DIFFERENTIATION AND SPECIALIZATON IN THE ECONOMY)
GS 6 Antalya, the dominant city of the Urban Region will have sub-settlements. These settlements should be complementary to each other from the points of view of both economic functional distribution and spatial development. (GS 6 URBAN HIERARCHY IN THE METROPOLITAN AREA)
GS 7 Specific natural environment which will directly be affected by spatial development, should form the inventory of assets the protection of which is obligatory, to be considered in all decisions pertaining to development.(GS 7 ECO SYSTEM FRIENDLY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT )
GS 8 Specific archaeological and historical heritage, local cultural values and accumulations should be preserved with utmost care, in order to create the sense of belonging and urban identity; and planning measures promoting cultural development should be taken. (GS 8 CONSERVATION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE AND ACQUISITION OF IDENTITY)
1.2 OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGIES FOR SPATIAL/SECTORAL DEVELOPMENT
The spatial development strategies concerning Antalya Urban Region and the Greater City have been formulated in amore concrete and more detailed manner, as follows:
1.2.1.Sectoral Development Strategies for Antalya Urban Region (URS)
URS 1 Sub-settlements under the influence of Greater City of Antalya should develop in an integrated manner. The sub-settlements should make use of the facilities provided by their geographic location and the environment they are situated in.(URS 1 FULFILMENT OF FUNCTIONS ON THE BASIS OF GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION)
URS 2 The settlements of the region should acquire differentiated functions. (URS 2 IMPLEMENTATION OF DEVELOPMENT MODELS SPECIFIC TO SETTLEMENTS)
URS 3 Demand for transportation should be met in an effective and environment friendly way and mobility among the settlements must be facilitated.(URS 3 PROMOTION OF INTERACTION AMONG SETTLEMENTS)
1.2.2. Sectoral Development Strategies for Greater City of Antalya (CAS)
Greater City of Antalya will naturally influence and be influenced by the developments in the Urban Region. The strategies formulated for the region, will be the direct determinants of the physical structure of the city of Antalya.
CAS 1 Greater City of Antalya should exhibit the diversification required by a metropolis, in each sector. (CAS 1 DIVERSIFICATION OF ACTIVITIES/ MULTI SECTORAL ECONOMY)
CAS 2 Parallel to the diversification of activities, spatial differentiation should be facilitated. (CAS 2 SPATIAL DIFFERENTIATION/ MULTI SECTORAL PHYSICAL STRUCTURE)
CAS 3 Greater City of Antalya should develop with multi centers, taking its specific urban restraints into consideration. (CAS 3 MULTI CENTERS)
CAS 4 Greater City of Antalya should certainly be provided with all the technical infrastructure and services required by a metropolis. (CS 4 NECESSARY SERVICES)
CAS 5 For each physical sector in the Greater City, different development strategies should be implemented, taking physical development, infrastructural facilities and similar factors into consideration. (CAS 5 DIFFERENTIATION OF PHYSICAL/ SECTORAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES)
The sub-strategies consisting of spatial details of this strategy are as follows:
Organized uses in expansion areas
implementing rehabilitation policies as a principle in developed areas
Improvement of low standard housing stock through integrated programmes
Preservation of surrounding areas to be used for revitalization
Development of urban connection network
Producing structural and development plans concerning each sensitive sector
2. CONCRETION OF PLAN OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGIES, THEIR TRANSFER INTO SPACE, AND DECISIONS PERTAINING TO PHYSICAL PATTERN
Majority of objectives and strategies of the plan consists of concrete spatial issues. These are further detailed on the basis of certain physical urban sectors.
By the end of the plan period, the Greater City of Antalya will include numerous physical sectors. Most important of these sectors will be today’s built-up area. It is possible to develop the below given main decisions for this area:
2.1. City Core (Central City) (CC)
CC 1 The Central Business District of the Greater City of Antalya is insufficient. CBD will grow larger as the functional changes occur in adjacent areas. Furthermore establishment of sub-centers as well as new centers should be promoted.
CC 2 Considering the pressure by the CBD , preservation/ development and revitalization programmes, based on realistic investment and financial programmes, should be implemented in some sections of the CBD like Kalekapısı, Balbey and Haşim İşcan which makes the urban vulnerable nucleus of the central city.
CC 4 Infrastructure and services should be improved in all other sections of the central area as well.
CC 5 Improvement and legitimization programmes for the illegal housing stock in Kepez and in other sections should be implemented in coordination.
2.2.Northern Antalya Section (NAS)
NAS 1 Urban uses should be realized in organized areas through organized initiatives.
NAS 2 Initiatives to create sub-centers should be promoted.
NAS 3 The forest areas functioning as a buffer zone between this section and the central city should certainly be preserved.
2.2.1. Urban Employment Areas in Northern Antalya Section (NAE)
The section of Northern Antalya between Kuzeykent and Bıyıklı Village should be evaluated as a physical sector in which urban employment areas will take place
2.2. Eastern Antalya Section (EAS)
Environmental vulnerability of the expansion areas on the east and west of Greater City of Antalya is quite high. The following measures must be taken in the Eastern Antalya:
EAS 1 Uses of coastal strip in Lara section should be balanced.
EAS 2 In coastal areas organized tourism areas must be proposed.
EAS 3 Possibilities should be searched for the realization of use composition of sub-settlements, in the areas on the east of Muratpaţa Municipality borders, through the analysis of soil classification, economic productivity and eco-system sensitivity surveys.
EAS 4 A research should be made on the possibilities of converting the axis of Antalya Airport to a non-residential employment area
EAS 5 In the areas on the north of Airport, the location possibilities should be searched for socio-cultural activities required by the Greater City, as well as for the uses which will facilitate international relations and organized residential areas.
2 4 Western Antalya Section (WAS)
Konyaaltı which takes place on the west of the Greater City, has recently been experiencing dense development. Within this section;
WAS 1 Coastal strip symbolising Antalya must be rearranged.
WAS 2 A balance should be established among urban uses; and employment and residential uses should clearly be differentiated.
WAS 3 Development of sub-centers should be promoted.
WAS 4 Geological and hydro-geological surveys should be made and the developments should be realized accordingly.
WAS 5 Considering the development tendency on higher areas, on the west of Konyaaltı, urgent physical arrangements should be proposed.
2.5. Surrounding Settlements Section (SSS)
SSS 1 The surrounding settlements will develop as traditional sub- settlements producing goods required by a metropolis, being self-sufficient with its center and infrastructural services and having low density residential areas in some parts.
SSS 2 Due to specific characteristics of the Greater City, agricultural activities like technology intensive green house farming, floriculture, germination and animal husbandry will also develop.
SSS 3 In some sections of these settlements, activities of production industry will take place as well.
SSS 4 Sub- settlements will benefit the major infrastructure and social services provided by the Greater City.
SSS 5 Among the sub-settlements and other units of the Greater City, integrated transportation systems will be developed.